Impedance pipe heating. By now, those words probably conjure an image of a long delivery line:  a stainless tubing line in a food plant, or a carbon steel line in a production facility. In either case, just a simple delivery line, taking product from a tank or storage area to a use point.  Is this the only place to use impedance? Is it relegated to fixed delivery lines and nothing else? Of course not! While it is a simple and effective method of heating pipe, it can also be a flexible one.

The origins of chocolate, which is derived from the Theobroma cacao tree, stretch back at least 4000 years. The plant is believed to have originated in the Amazon or Orinoco basins in South America and was regarded by the Aztecs as being of divine origin.